After the election period is over and it’s time to tally the votes, the electronic voting machines are brought out, the seals opened and the vote counts for each control unit are read out from its display board. Testing can reveal only some problems, and the absence of problems during testing does not mean that problems do not exist. It is intended for the single purpose of voting and specially designed for that, rather than relying on a standard operating system like Windows, which needs to be regularly updated to patch detected security vulnerabilities.New Delhi: About 600 million Indian citizens are expected to cast their votes over a period of 39 days ending May 19, in the ongoing election for their country’s parliament. (Photo:AP)As I and others have observed, when the machines are being made, there are a number of opportunities for someone to physically tamper with an electronic voting machine in ways that preelection device testing might not detect. Election workers hand-tally these individual machine totals to obtain the election results for each constituency. With 900 million of Indias 1.When it’s time for the polling place to close at the end of the voting day, each electronic voting machine device and paper-record storage box is sealed with wax and tape bearing the signatures of representatives of the various candidates in that election, and stored under armed guard. However, it is possible to make changes that will not be detected.A woman tests an electronic voting machine in India in advance of that country’s national elections.) Opposition parties have asked the Supreme Court to order audits of half of all electronic voting machines, but that may not happen with this year’s election. Then the paper is dropped into a locked storage box. Indians were voting Monday in the fourth phase of a staggered national election.Each machine requires only a connection between a balloting unit and a control unit; there are no provisions to connect an electronic voting machine to a computer network, much less the internet – including wirelessly. (Photo:AP)Security protections – and concernsThe Indian electronic voting machine primarily runs on specialized hardware and firmware, unlike the voting machines used in the U. The chips for the machines are manufactured outside India. The Election Commission of India has repeatedly claimed that the electronic voting machines are tamper-proof. (This article featured in Global Perspective- The Conversation).The first version of the Indian electronic voting machine debuted in the state election in Kerala in 1982. A 2013 Supreme Court directive asked the Election Commission to create that process to protect the integrity of the balloting process. The Election Commission should certainly continue to improve testing and provide public reports of independent testing.After each button press, a printer prints out the voter’s choice on paper and displays it to the voter for a few seconds, so the person may verify that the vote was recorded correctly.An Indian election official displays a sample paper record of an electronic ballot during a demonstration of how the equipment works.After polling concludes, India’s electronic voting machines are sealed with a very old-fashioned technology.An elderly Indian citizen is assisted by a polling staff as she prepares to leave after voting at a polling center during the fourth phase of general elections in Mumbai, India, Monday, April 29, 2019. In particular, the simplicity of the design allows for simple attacks, such as intercepting and modifying the signal carried over the machine’s cable. Parties that lose elections often suspect malfeasance and question the equipment. Now they’re used in elections throughout the country, which happen on different days in different areas. The machines’ software is designed, written and tested at two electronics companies owned by the government of India: Bharat Electronics Limited and Electronics Corporation of India Limited. In earlier versions of the machine, the chip manufacturer also wrote the machine code into the chip; today the electronics companies do it themselves.While the electronic voting machine system is useful and functional, officials and observers shouldn’t assume there’s no way to tamper with the results. (Photo:AP)How does it work?When a voter arrives at the polling place, she presents a photo ID and the poll officer checks that she is on the electoral roll. India uses a domestically designed and manufactured electronic voting machine – as many as 4 million of them at 1 million polling places, at least some in extremely remote locations. There are roughly 900 million eligible voters, and the country has typically seen about two-thirds of them turn out to polling places. (This means about 1 per cent or 2 per cent of each constituency’s machines will be tested.Auditing the machines’ resultsThere is, however, a mechanism for detecting attacks – that printed-out paper bearing the vote and stored securely with the electronic equipment.The balloting unit has a very simple user interface: a series of buttons with candidate names and symbols. However, a scholarly study has demonstrated there are ways to rig the machines., which are software-intensive.I have been working on the security of electronic voting systems for more than 15 years, and, along with other colleagues, have been interested in understanding how a nation can tally that many votes cast over such a long period.The Election Commission of India argues that any manipulation or error would be detected because the electronic voting machine is tested frequently and candidate representatives have opportunities to participate in mock elections immediately before a machine is used in a real election. When it’s her turn to vote, a polling official uses an electronic voting machine’s control unit to unlock its balloting unit, ready to accept her vote.In each constituency, five electronic voting machines will have their results audited by comparing a manual count of the printouts with the electronic tallies.S.At any China small bearing Manufacturers time during manufacture, testing and maintenance, it may be possible to introduce counterfeit chips or swap out other components that could let hackers alter the results.Different areas of India vote on seven different days, over the course of a 39-day election period.The Election Commission has not made public any independent security evaluations, so it’s unclear exactly what is – or isn’t – possible. However, because no technology can be tamper-proof, each election outcome should be verified by a manual audit, to ensure that the results are correct, whatever they may be.This design does offer some protections against possible tampering with how votes are recorded and tallied.Indian voters line up outside a polling booth in Mumbai, India, Monday, April 29, 2019.The whole system runs on a battery, so it does not need to be plugged in. The voting over seven phases ends May 19, with counting scheduled for May 23.3 billion people registered to vote, the Indian national election is the worlds largest democratic exercise. To vote, the voter simply presses the button next to the candidate of her choice.Indian men stand in queue to cast their votes at a polling booth in Bardhaman east constituency, West Bengal state, India, Monday, April 29, 2019

But they were under the pump in the next two games as their batting collapsed on the slow turning wickets, making them underdogs in the final. To push for those twos and run hard between the wickets in Twenty20 makes wholesale non-standard bearings for sale it bit harder but I am pleased we have come through," said Knight.From the weathering the cold climate back home to facing the sweltering heat and humidity in Mumbai, England’s women cricketers have coped well so far, despite not specially preparing for it."It’s disappointing for England. It has been fine so far," she added..

They played a couple of practice games at Bandra Kurla Complex MCA stadium before moving to Baroda for the three-match ODI series.Knight felt two back-to-back losses would have no bearing on the final as they were trying new players and are using this tour to prepare for Twenty20 World Cup in the West Indies from November 9 to 24. It has been hot and cold. Before that they will also play a practice match against India A team.England landed in Mumbai just a few days before the tri-series, which started on March 21, while Aussie women in comparison came to Mumbai at the start of this month.  "No (we didn’t prepare for the heat), it was snowing in England. Obviously, tough conditions in Mumbai as heat wave is going on. They won both their first two matches against Australia and India while chasing.Australia will fly back after the final but there will be no respite for English girls as they will get exposed to Nagpur heat when they take on India in the three-match ODI series starting from April 6. Looking forward to Saturday and hoping to turn it around and put in a good performance (in the final)," she said. But we’ve taken this tour as a preparation for World T20 and for the younger players. The Heather Knight-led team will meet Australia in the Twenty20 tri-series final on Saturday at the Cricket Club of India. It’s a bit frustrating that we haven’t learnt quickly but I think they will take some time. It’s not going to have a bearing on the final. They were reportedly indulging in sauna and spa sessions after training at home to acclimatise to Indian conditions.The English girls’ performance in the tournament also has been hot and cold so far. And sometimes you have to play out a few games in international cricket to see if they are right or wrong.The English skipper, who led her country to title win in the ICC Women’s ODI World Cup at Lord’s last year after defeating India in the final, felt fitness has helped them  cope with extreme conditions."Obviously, two defeats is not ideal but T20 is a very fickle game, it changes very quickly. "We have worked hard on fitness, particularly in the last one year or so fitness standards have gone high

"When nations with their own internal difficulties find themselves hosting massive refugee populations for years on end, it can risk more instability. They are victims. And we are not as unified as we should be in pushing to make it stop. The brash tycoon has sparked a wave of criticism over his comments on race, immigrants and refugees, including calling for a ban on Muslim travellers to the United States.For the past year, Trump has been warning that letting refugees in would make the US vulnerable to new terror attacks. It oftentimes surfaces tensions in our society when we have disorderly and disproportionate migration into some countries that skews our politics and is subject to demagoguery," he said.Obama, who is attending the last UN General-Assembly session of his presidency, said nations cannot excuse the mentality that allows for violence with impunity."Among them are more than 21 million refugees who have fled their countries - everything and everyone they've ever known, fleeing with a suitcase or the clothes on their back," he said. I believe refugees can make us stronger," he said."It's a test of our international system where all nations ought to share in our collective responsibilities, because the vast majority of refugees are hosted by just 10 countries who are bearing a very heavy burden - among them Turkey, Pakistan,Lebanon, Iran, Ethiopia.And this week, one of Trump's sons triggered an online storm with a tweet comparing Syrian refugees to a bowl containing an assortment of tainted and untainted candies.

The refugee crisis also tests the nations' shared security. Countries that often have fewer resources than many of those who are doing little or nothing," he said.Obama said he called the summit because the refugee crisis is "one of the most urgent tests of our time - our capacity for collective action."He underlined the need to recognise that refugees are a symptom of "larger failures" such as war, ethnic tensions or persecution."Refugees are subject to more rigorous screening than the average tourist.He highlighted that in recent years, the US has put in place intensive screening and security checks to take in refugees as well as ensure the nation's security."He told the summit that as President, he has increased the number of refugees America is resettling to 85,000 this year, which includes 10,000 Syrian refugees..Obama, who hosted a 'Leaders Summit on Refugees' during the 71st UN General Assembly session in United Nations on Tuesday, said the world was facing a refugee crisis of "epic proportions" with more than 65 million people having been driven from their homes, more than any time since the World War-II."And if we were to turn refugees away simply because of their background or religion, or, for example, because they are Muslim, then we would be reinforcing terrorist propaganda that nations like my own are somehow opposed to Islam, which is an ugly lie that must be rejected in all of our countries by upholding the values of pluralism and diversity," he said at the summit attended by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Bangladesh Prime Minsiter Sheikh Hasina. "Not because refugees are a threat.

They're families who want to be safe and to work, be good citizens and contribute to their country who are interested in assimilating and contributing to the society in which they find themselves.In the coming fiscal year, the US will welcome and resettle 110,000 refugees from around the world - which is a nearly 60 percent increase over 2015."So the challenge to our security is because when desperate refugees pay cold-hearted traffickers for passage, it funds the same criminals who are smuggling arms and drugs and children. Refugees, most of whom are women and children, are often fleeing war and terrorism.United Nations: In a criticism of Republican Presidential candidate Donald Trump's rhetoric, US President Barack Obama said if America turned away refugees simply because they are "Muslim", it would reinforce the terrorists' propaganda and the "ugly lie" that the US is opposed to Islam.Obama said the world was facing a refugee crisis of epic proportions with more than 65 million people having been driven from their homes. We've seen in America, hardworking, patriotic refugees serve in our military, and start new businesses and help revitalise communities."And collectively, we continue to make excuses. To test, first and foremost, our ability to end conflicts, because so many of the world's refugees come from just three countries ravaged by war - Syria, Afghanistan and Somalia," he said."If we truly good bearing Manufacturers want to address the crisis, wars like the savagery in Syria must be brought to an end - and it will be brought to an end through political settlement and diplomacy, and not simply by bombing. It's not the subject of this summit, but we all know that what is happening in Syria, for example, is unacceptable.He added it was not fair that a handful of countries, mostly with limited resources, are bearing the burden of hosting the maximum refugees

However, experts are advising caution as the rally is largely liquidity driven and the corporate fundamentals are yet to keep pace with the valuations.During the last three months, equity schemes offered by mutual funds saw a total inflow of Rs 21,000 crore with the net inflow in December (Rs 9,196 crore) being the highest in nineteen month.According pillow block ball bearing Manufacturers to the data available with Value Research, a mutual fund tracking firm, the small cal equity schemes have given an average annual return of 34.74, hit on March 4, 2015.The continuous flow of funds from domestic investors is the primary reason behind the sharp surge in the prices of small and mid cap stocks.On the other hand, the 30-share BSE Sensex is still 1690 points away from its record high of 30,024.79 per cent when compared to 24..

The strong rally in small cap stocks has also helped the BSE small cap index to hit an all-time high last week while the BSE mid cap index is just 245 point away from its lifetime high. Since the valuations are looking a bit stretched at the moment, it is better to book some partial profits," he added.36 per cent return generated by large cap funds.According to Mr Baliga, the latest quarterly numbers came better that what street had anticipated as companies barring few in the consumer sector managed to shrug of the adverse impact of the demonetisation. The relative out-performance of small cap stocks are attracting small investors towards mutual funds schemes focussed on small and mid cap stocks," said Ambareesh Baliga, senior research analyst."It is more a liquidity driven rally than a fundamental one."However, the real impact of the note ban would be felt in their January–March quarterly numbers.Mumbai: The small cap stocks have stolen the lime light on the domestic bourses in the recent rally with over 160 stocks hitting their 52-week high even as large cap stocks are finding stiff resistance at higher levels

Besides Sidh Sales Syndicate, the CBI also registered a case against unidentified officials of the Guns Carriage Factory (GCF), Jabalpur, under criminal conspiracy, cheating and forgery for supplying fake and cheap China-made spares passing off as Made in Germany for Dhanush guns, the FIR alleged.New Delhi: Chinese parts camouflaged as Made in Germany ones allegedly found their way to the production line of Indian-made Bofors artillery guns called Dhanush used by the Army, prompting the CBI to file a case against a Delhi-based company.07 lakh on August 27, 2014.It showed that Sidh Sales Syndicate got the six bearings manufactured by Sino United Industries (Luyang) Ltd Henan, China.

The order was given to Sidh Sales Syndicate at the value of Rs.Dhanush is the indigenised version of the Bofors artillery guns which performed exceedingly well during the Kargil conflict in 1999. The letter from Germany shown by the company was also on forged letterhead, CBI alleged..They were also embossed with the label, CRB-Made in Germany.The CBI alleged that the supplier entered into criminal conspiracy with the unidentified GCF officials to supply duplicate spare parts (bearings) used in the manufacture of Dhanush guns."In furtherance of the said criminal conspiracy, unknown officials of GCF accepted the Chinese manufactured Wire Race Roller Bearings supplied by Sidh Sales Syndicate which were embossed as CRB-Made in Germany," the CBI said in the FIR.The company provided clarifications and assured that in case of non-performance of the bearing due to manufacturing defects, they would replace the bearing free of cost and take corrective action for future supply."The said forged letter and certificate were accepted by unidentified officials of GCF with ulterior motive and by abusing their official positions as such without ascertaining the genuineness of the said letter and certiciates and cause undue advantage to Sidh Sales Syndicate and corresponding loss to the Government of India," the investigating agency said in small bearing Manufacturers the FIR.The company supplied two bearings each on three occasions between April 7, 2014 and August 12, 2014.38 lakh in 2013, the FIR stated.The order was further increased to six bearings at the cost of Rs.Information received by the CBI shows that the German company does not manufacture these parts. It submitted certificates in origin showing the bearings were procured from CRB Antriebstechnik, Germany. 53. 35.The certificate of origin from Germany was also forged. GCF tests showed that the bearings were unacceptable due to deviations in dimensions."Consequently the bearings were accepted as a special case by unknown officials of GCF Jabalpur," the CBI alleged.The agency said production and performance of the Dhanush gun is extremely crucial for Indias defence preparedness and "wire race roller bearing" is its vital component.A tender was floated for the procurement of four such bearings according to the Rothe Erde drawing for 155 mm gun in which four firms had participated.The agency also seized several emails which were exchanged between China and Sidh Sales Syndicate

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